deca durabolin reviews

Ceftazidime is an antibacterial medication from the group of III generation cephalosporins, has a broad spectrum and bactericidal effect, breaking the final stages of the synthesis of the cell wall of bacteria by irreversibly binding to transpeptidase (penicillin-binding proteins); resistant to most beta-lactamases. It acts on many strains resistant to ampicillin and other cephalosporins. It is active against gram-negative microorganisms: Pseudomonas spp. (including Pseudomonas aeruginosa ), Klebsiella spp. (in m. h. Klebsiella pneumoniae), Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp. (including Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae), Citrobacter spp. (including diversus Citrobacter, Citrobacter freundii), Pasteurella multocida, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae (including the strains resistant to ampicillin); Gram-positive microorganisms: of Staphylococcus aureus (producing and producing no penicillinase strains that are sensitive to methicillin), Steptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus), of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B), of Streptococcus pneumoniae; anaerobic bacteria: of Bacteroides spp. (most strains of Bacteroides fragilisare resistant .) The research is active in vitro against most strains: of Acinetobacter spp, of Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Morganella morganii, of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Providencia spp, Providencia rettgeri, of Salmonella spp, of Shigella spp, of Staphylococcus epidermidis, of Yersinia enterocolitica, Clostridium perfringens,…. except for Clostridium difficile, Peptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp . Ceftazidime activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp. , and Clostridium difficile .

Pharmacokinetics

after intravenous (i / v) bolus of 0.5 g and 1 g of ceftazidime average maximum serum concentrations of – 42 mg / L and 90 mg / l, respectively. Following intramuscular (i / m) administration of 0.5 g or 1 g of maximal serum concentration is on average, 17 mg / ml and 39 mg / l, respectively, are achieved through 1 hour after administration. A therapeutically relevant plasma levels persist for 8-12 hours.
After the on / in or / m of ceftazidime is rapidly distributed in the body. The concentration of the antibiotic in excess of the MIC for susceptible organisms, are achieved in most tissues and fluids, including synovial, intraocular, pericardial and peritoneal fluid, bile, phlegm, urine, bone tissue, myocardium, gall bladder, skin and soft tissues; diffusion of the drug increases in inflammatory processes. Poorly penetrates the lining of the brain unchanged. Meningitis permeability across the blood brain barrier is increased, while in the cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of therapeutic achieved constituting 4-20 mg / l and higher. It passes through the placenta; in low concentrations into breast milk. Reversibly bound to plasma proteins (less than 10%). The degree of binding is independent of concentration of the antibiotic. Ceftazidime does not displace bilirubin from plasma protein complexes. The volume of distribution is 0.21 – 0.28 L / kg.
Excreted by the kidneys (90% of the administered dose unchanged within 24 hours) by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. In adults with normal renal function the half-life of blood serum -. 1.9 hours in newborns, especially premature, half-life of ceftazidime in the serum can be 3-4 times higher than in adults. The half-life of tissue greater than the serum from the blood.
In patients with impaired renal function half-life is increased, which requires correction of administration and dosage regimes (if creatinine clearance less than 50 mL / min).
Less than 1% of the drug is excreted in the bile. The drug is not metabolized in the liver, the liver does not affect the pharmacokinetics of the drug. The dose in these patients remained normal.

Indications
The infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to ceftazidime:

  • central nervous system infections (bacterial meningitis and brain abscess);
  • Upper respiratory tract infection (otitis media, malignant inflammation of the outer ear, mastoiditis, sinusitis, etc.);
  • lower respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, infected bronchiectasis, pneumonia, lung abscess, empyema, lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients);
  • infection of the abdominal cavity and biliary tract (cholangitis, cholecystitis, gallbladder empyema, retroperitoneal abscesses, peritonitis, diverticulitis);
  • infections of the gastrointestinal tract (enterocolitis);
  • Skin and soft tissue infections, wound and burn infections;
  • bone and joint infections (osteomyelitis, septic arthritis);
  • infections of the kidneys and urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis, pyelitis, kidney abscess, prostatitis, cystitis, urethritis, kidney infections in patients with urolithiasis);
  • infectious and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs in women (endometritis, pelvioperitonit, salpingitis, Options, pelvic cellulitis);
  • sepsis;
  • infections associated with dialysis;
  • prevention of infectious complications during operations on the prostate gland.

Contraindications
: Hypersensitivity to ceftazidime, to other cephalosporins and penicillins.

With caution
when specifying a history of colitis; malabsorption syndrome (increased risk of reduced prothrombin activity); the newborn period, renal failure, in combination with loop diuretics and aminoglycosides.

Pregnancy and lactation
There is no evidence embryotoxic or teratogenic effects of ceftazidime, but during pregnancy (I term) is used only on strict conditions, with the confidence that the potential benefits of the application to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.
Ceftazidime in low concentrations into breast milk, therefore, if necessary, use during lactation should decide the issue of termination of breastfeeding.

Dosing and Administration
Vitsef ® administered parenterally – in / in / m.
In adults and children older than 12 years the usual single dose deca durabolin reviews ® is 1 g every 8-12 hours or 2 g every 12 hours.
It was also recommended following doses multiplicity and the route of administration, which are determined by the location and severity of the disease:

  • uncomplicated urinary tract infections – 0.25 g every 12 hours / or in V / m;
  • in complicated urinary tract infections – 0.5 g every 8 or 12 hours / in or / m;
  • in uncomplicated pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, infections of upper respiratory tract – 0.5-1 g every 8 hours in / in or / m;
  • with severe intra-abdominal or gynecological infections – 2 g every 8 hours / in;
  • infections of joints and bones – 2 g every 12 hours / in;
  • in bacterial meningitis – 2 g every 8 hours / in;
  • in severe, life-threatening infections and febrile neutropenia – 2 g every 8 hours / in, or 3 g every 12 hours / in (maximum daily dose-d 6);
  • with severe pulmonary infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa , cystic fibrosis patients with normal renal function and – 30-50 mg / kg every 8 hours / in.

For antibiotic prophylaxis of postoperative complications in operations on the prostate gland for 30 minutes before the operation is introduced into / in 1 g deca durabolin reviews ® , the removal of the urinary catheter is recommended to re-enter the 1 g deca durabolin reviews ® . Children older than 1 month. and up to 12 years, usually administered 30-50 mg / kg every 8 hours. For the treatment of bacterial meningitis, and treatment of infections in children with immunodeficiency or cystic fibrosis, the daily dose is 150 mg / kg (but not more than 6 grams per day), which is divided into 3 administration. Infants (children up to 1 month.)Appoint 30 mg / kg every 12 hours / in. patients with impaired renal function required dose and the correction mode, based on creatinine clearance rates. Treatment starts with the introduction of 1 g deca durabolin reviews ®as the first loading dose. In the future, supporting the mode is calculated as shown in the table below:

 

 

QC ml / min 50-31 30-16 15-5 <5
Mode 1 g every 12 h 1 g every 24 h 0.5 g every 24 h 0.5 g every 48 h

Patients with severe infections to chronic renal failure background unit doses indicated in the table (see. Above) can be increased by 50% or to reduce the intervals between injections. Further, correction of the dosing regime is conducted on the basis of susceptibility of microorganism, the severity of the patient and data therapeutic monitoring serum ceftazidime concentrations (residual concentration should not exceed 40 mg / l).
When hemodialysis: loading dose – 1 g, followed by 1 g after each hemodialysis. With continuous hemodialysis using arteriovenous shunt and during high hemofiltration – 1 g / day every day (for one or more administrations). During the hemofiltration low speed Vitsef ® administered at doses recommended in case of violation of renal function (see. Table above).
In peritoneal dialysis, first administered 1 g (loading dose), then appoint 0.5 g every 24 hours. In addition to the in / or / m introduction, introduction may deca durabolin reviews ® in the composition of the dialysis solution of 0.25 g deca durabolin reviews ® 2 l of dialysis solution.
Introduction deca durabolin reviews should continue for a further 2 days after the disappearance of symptoms of the infection. In cases of severe and complicated infections may require long courses of treatment. Vitsef ® is administered intravenously (bolus infusion) and intramuscularly. The dissolution deca durabolin reviews ® is accompanied by a slight exothermic reaction in which carbon dioxide is released and a positive pressure is created in the bottle. Bubbles of carbon dioxide may be present in the resulting solution, which does not affect the effectiveness of the drug. Slight yellowing of the solution does not affect the efficiency.Intramuscular administration to the / m of sterile powder deca durabolin reviews ® dissolved in sterile water for injection or 0.5-1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution (in the absence of indications of intolerance to local anesthetics of the amide type). The following minimum amount of solvent is added directly into a vial of the dry powder of the antibiotic:

 

a vial containing 0.5 g deca durabolin reviews ® 1.5 ml
a vial containing 1.0 g deca durabolin reviews ® 3.0 ml

The resulting solution, an approximate concentration of ceftazidime in which 260 mg / ml is administered by deep intramuscular injection in areas of the body with pronounced muscular layer (the upper-outer quadrant of the buttock or the lateral surface of the thigh). It is recommended to conduct a test on the aspiration to avoid unwanted introduction of the solution into a blood vessel. Intravenous For in / bolus Vitsef ® dissolved in sterile water for injection. The following amounts of solvent are added directly into a vial of dry powder of the antibiotic:

a vial containing 0.5 g deca durabolin reviews ® 5.0 ml
a vial containing 1.0 g deca durabolin reviews ® 10 ml
a vial containing 2.0 g deca durabolin reviews ® 20 ml

The resulting solution was an approximate concentration of ceftazidime in which 90 mg / ml, introduced into / in slowly over 3.5 min; possibly through the introduction of a special host or port injection system for the on / in infusion if the patient receives consistent with Vitsefom ® liquid parenterally.
For in / drip Vitsef ® dissolved, both in / bolus (see. above). The resulting solution was added to the vial containing 50-100 ml compatible fluid environment. Is introduced through a system for in / in infusion for at least 30 minutes. Vitsef ® compatible with 5% dextrose solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 10% dextrose solution, an aqueous solution containing 0.225% of sodium chloride and 5% dextrose;aqueous solution containing 0.45% NaCl and 5% dextrose; an aqueous solution containing 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% dextrose; Ringer’s solution; lactated Ringer’s solution; 1/6 M sodium lactate solution;10% invert sugar solution; solution of “Normozol-M” with 5% glucose.

Side effects: Allergic reactions : 2% or less – maculopapular rash, itching, fever; very rarely – angioneurotic edema, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. From the digestive system : 2% or less – diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, colitis, cholestasis; very rarely – jaundice, pseudomembranous colitis linked to Clostridium difficile. From the nervous system : 1% or less – dizziness, headache; paresthesia; very rarely – seizures. Reported cases of neurological complications, such as tremor, myoclonus, seizures, encephalopathy and coma in patients with renal insufficiency, in which the dose of ceftazidime has not been correspondingly reduced. From the side of hematopoiesis : in less than 2% – eosinophilia, thrombocytosis; very rarely – transient leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis, hemolytic anemia and agranulocytosis. From the urinary system : very rarely – interstitial nephritis, renal dysfunction, renal failure. From the laboratory parameters : 2% or less – transient increase in ” liver “transaminases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase, LDH, false-positive direct Coombs’ test without hemolysis; less than 1% – hypercreatininemia transient, increased levels of urea and / or plasma creatinine. Local reactions : 2% or less – pain and / or inflammation at the site in / injection; when i / m administration – pain and induration at the injection site. Others : less than 1% – fever, oral candidiasis and Candida vaginitis.

Overdose

An overdose of ceftazidime was observed in patients with renal failure. Symptoms : increased seizure activity, “fluttering” tremor, encephalopathy, neuromuscular excitability, coma. Treatment : symptomatic and supportive therapy. In case of severe overdosing of the drug concentration in blood can be reduced by means of dialysis.

Interaction with other drugs
When concomitant administration deca durabolin reviews ® with aminoglycosides observed synergistic and additive effects.
The solution is pharmaceutically incompatible with aminoglycosides (significant mutual inactivation: while the application) and vancomycin (forms a precipitate in a concentration-dependent). In an application should not mix them in the same syringe or a fluid medium; when i / m administration to enter into different parts of the body; by intravenous administration is recommended to be administered separately, observing the specific sequence with a time interval between doses (infusions), or use a separate I / catheters.
It is impossible to use sodium hydrogen carbonate solution as a solvent.
In an application of cephalosporins with loop diuretics, aminoglycoside increased risk of nephrotoxicity.
Chloramphenicol and beta-lactam antibiotics, including ceftazidime, act antagonistically, so avoid their simultaneous use.
A solution of ceftazidime in a concentration of 4 mg / ml, prepared with 5% dextrose or 0.9% sodium chloride solution, compatible with cefuroxime sodium 3 mg / ml; with heparin 10 IU / ml and 50 IU / ml solution of potassium chloride 10 mEq / L and 40 mEq / L.
When mixing deca durabolin reviews solution ® at a concentration of 20 mg / ml and metronidazole 5 mg / ml, both components retain their activity.
The concentration from 0.05 to 0.25 mg / ml ceftazidime compatible with peritoneal dialysis solution (lactate).

Cautions
When injecting patients with intolerance to local anesthetics of the amide type can not be used as a solvent of 0.5% or 1% lidocaine.
In the event of diarrhea during treatment Vitsefom ® should exercise caution because of the possible development of pseudomembranous colitis. If the diagnosis of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis is installed, you should immediately stop the introduction deca durabolin reviews ® and appropriate treatment.
As in the case of other antibiotics, the use of deca durabolin reviews ® can lead to colonization insensitive microflora and the development of superinfection.
In determining glucose in urine by Benedict or Fehling’s, as well as using Klinitesta ® false positive results can occur rarely.

The impact on performance of potentially hazardous activities that require attention and speed of reaction
studies of the effects of ceftazidime on the performance of potentially hazardous activities that require attention and speed of reaction is not carried out.
Given the possible evolution of dizziness, when using ceftazidime must be careful when driving vehicles and other classes of potentially hazardous activities that require high concentration and psychomotor speed reactions.

Product form
Powder for solution for intravenous and intramuscular administration of 0.5 g, 1 g and 2 g
0.5 g and 1.0 g of active substance in glass bottles with capacity 10 ml;
2.0 g of active substance in the capacity glass vials 20 ml.
solvent -. “Water for injection” in glass ampoules 5 ml
1 vial and instructions for use are placed in a pile of cardboard.
1 vial and 1 vial of solvent is packaged in blisters. One contour cell package and instructions for use are investing in paper cartons.
5 vials of the drug is packaged in blisters. One contour cell package and instructions for use are investing in paper cartons.
5 vials of medication, complete with 5 ampoules of solvent is packaged in blisters. One contour cell package with the drug one contour cell package with a solvent, and instructions for use are investing in paper cartons. Comprar esteroides online, comprar esteroide comprar esteroides online espana! bodybuilding supplements uk

steroids uk

bodybuilding personal trainer melbourne